By Kara Rogers

ISBN-10: 1615301216

ISBN-13: 9781615301218

Even if its ubiquity within the human physique may well make it look unremarkable, easily placed, blood makes lifestyles attainable. It nourishes cells through the physique and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs. with out it, the physique will be not able to struggle disorder and an infection or functionality in any respect. Readers are invited to keep on with the process this striking fluid because it circulates throughout the physique and find out about its part elements. designated diagrams complement the textual content and make allowance readers a glimpse into the anatomy and life-sustaining homes of human blood.

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Extra resources for Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body)

Sample text

Red Blood Cells The millions of red blood cells that occur in the circulation of vertebrates give the blood its characteristic colour. The function of the red cell and its hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all the body tissues and to transport carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, to the lungs, where it is excreted. 31 7 Blood: Physiology and Circulation 7 The red blood cells are highly specialized, well adapted for their primary function of oxygen transport. This adaptation is made evident by several important features of the cells.

Bone marrow is a rich mixture of developing and mature blood cells, as well as fat cells and other cells that provide nutrition and an architectural framework upon which the blood-forming elements arrange 29 7 Blood: Physiology and Circulation 7 themselves. The weight of the marrow of a normal adult is 1,600 to 3,700 grams and contains more than 1,000,000,000,000 hematopoietic cells (18 × 109 cells per kg). Nourishment of this large mass of cells comes from the blood itself. Arteries pierce the outer walls of the bones, enter the marrow, and divide into fine branches, which ultimately coalesce into large venous sacs (sinusoids) through which blood sluggishly flows.

Hemoglobin forms an unstable, reversible bond with oxygen. In the oxygenated state, it is called oxyhemoglobin and is bright red, and in the reduced state, it is purplish blue and may be referred to as deoxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin develops in bone marrow, specifically in the cells that become red blood cells. About 95 percent of the dry weight of the red cell consists of hemoglobin. When red cells die, hemoglobin is broken up. Iron is salvaged, transported to the bone marrow by proteins called transferrins, and used again in the production of new red blood cells.

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Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers

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