By Lev A. Blumenfeld, Alexander N. Tikhonov
The most aim of this ebook is to explain in actual phrases the unusual beneficial properties of "machines" having molecular dimensions that play the central function within the most vital organic techniques, viz., strength transduction and enzyme catalysis. seeing that those molecular engines paintings with thermal, chemical, and mechanical power, the proper framework to debate them comes from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. The booklet therefore starts off with a assessment of the thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. It then discusses the proposal of molecular machines, and particularly, the issues linked to making use of thermodynamics to small platforms comparable to enzymes. The authors then flip to enzyme catalysis, discussing theoretical and experimental investigations of protein dynamics. The concluding bankruptcy bargains with strength transduction in organic membranes, targeting ATP synthesis.
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Additional info for Biophysical Thermodynamics of Intracellular Processes: Molecular Machines of the Living Cell
In a closed system the only reasonable measure of coupling efficiency is the first one (parameter y). 4. The Mechanisms of Energy Coupling in Chemical Reactions 27 Let us consider the relaxation of a system (with initial concentrations of the reagents a, b, and c) to chemical equilibrium. , clb = K 2 , while the energy-donating one (A~B) was out of equilibrium. After reaching the equilibrium state the concentrations of the reagents will obey the equations (b + nd - na)/(a - nd) = Kl and (c + na)/(b + nd - na) = K 2 • From these relations we finally obtain y = na/nd = K 2 /(1 + K 2 ) < 1.
Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics of Living Systems determine the state of the equilibrium system. 43) H(t) = S(t)Jlg + P(t)Jl~. 44) We realize that using these thermodynamic functions represents a formal but reasonable approach to the description of an open system. At any moment in time, the values ofthe thermodynamic functions, G(t) and H(t), determine the spontaneous relaxation of the reaction mixture to the equilibrium state that would take place after abrupt and simultaneous ceasing of the input and output fluxes.
For example, if d~ ~ -30 kJ/mole (standard affinity for the reaction of ATP synthesis from ADP and P;), then K2 ~ 6 * 10- 6 , and consequently '1 « 1. This result illustrates why the mechanism of indirect coupling of the two chemical reactions having a common intermediate cannot be efficient. Actually, according to the abovementioned example, in order to form one molecule C we need to add more than 106 molecules B. 40)? In the case of many important biochemical reactions the role of component B might serve, for 28 2.
Biophysical Thermodynamics of Intracellular Processes: Molecular Machines of the Living Cell by Lev A. Blumenfeld, Alexander N. Tikhonov
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