By Michael Boot
Written by way of specialists in combustion know-how, it is a distinctive and clean viewpoint at the present biofuel dialogue, featuring the most recent learn during this vital field.
The emphasis all through this reference is on functions, business views and economics, targeting new periods of biofuels akin to butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others. in actual fact dependent, every one bankruptcy provides a brand new category of biofuel and discusses such issues as creation pathways, gas homes and its impression on engines.
the result's a desirable, user-oriented review of latest periods of biofuels past bioethanol.
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Additional info for Biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass: innovations beyond bioethanol
1 Chemical Properties The diesel part of the fuel should ignite as soon as possible, that is, it should have a high cetane number. Unfortunately, that is not often the case for fuels used in large dual-fuel engines often operated on heavy fuel oil. The premixed part of the fuel should have a high octane number. This is the case for pure methane, but often, natural gas also contains higher hydrocarbons with a lower octane number. It should be noted that dual fuel with gasoline or fuels with lower octane number are not in commercial use, most likely due to too low separation in autoignition properties from the DI part.
This required a lower compression ratio and advancing spark timing to maintain optimal engine operation. The n-pentanol blends required intake temperatures similar to that of gasoline, but increased fuel consumption due to the engine operating conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased with the addition of npentanol, while NOx emissions increased due to higher in-cylinder temperatures. 2). ). The latter technologies are not commercially viable at present and thus not discussed extensively here.
The C bonded to the OH group) due to its low bond dissociation energy. At low temperatures, O2 molecules react with α-hydroxyalkyl radicals to form an aldehyde plus HO2 radical. This is a concerted elimination reaction that competes with traditional low-temperature radical chain propagating and branching reactions and thus suppresses ignition propensity of the system. Further details on combustion chain reactions leading to ignition are found in Glassman’s textbook . ) can also be abstracted, and their subsequent reactions with O2 propel ignition via low-temperature chain propagation and/or branching pathways.
Biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass: innovations beyond bioethanol by Michael Boot
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