By Ethan Siegel

ISBN-10: 9814667161

ISBN-13: 9789814667166

A glance up on the evening sky finds a treasury of wonders. Even to the bare eye, the Moon, stars, planets, the Milky approach or even a number of superstar clusters and nebulae light up the heavens. For millennia, people struggled to make experience of what is available in the market within the Universe, from all we will be able to see to that which lies past the bounds of even our strongest telescopes. Beyond the Galaxy strains our trip from an historic, Earth-centered Universe all of the strategy to our sleek, twenty first century realizing of the cosmos. concerning not just what we all know but in addition how we all know it, Ethan Siegel takes us to the very frontiers of contemporary astrophysics and cosmology, from the start of our Universe to its final destiny, and every thing in between.

Readership: normal public attracted to astronomy, astrophysics and/or cosmology.

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Extra info for Beyond the Galaxy: How Humanity Looked Beyond Our Milky Way and Discovered the Entire Universe

Sample text

In astronomy, we define a star’s brightness by its visual magnitude, which works on a logarithmic scale. There are a handful of stars that are among the brightest: Sirius, Canopus, Alpha Centauri, Arcturus, Vega and Capella are the top six (in order), where Vega was used as the definition of the magnitude scale (at magnitude 0) for centuries. 5 times as bright as Vega, while one of magnitude +5 would be only 1% as bright. 4, exceeded only by a few of the planets, the Moon and the Sun. 5, which means there are approximately 9,000 stars visible from Earth without any sort of astronomical aid.

The way astronomers would measure this is by tracking the position of Mercury’s perihelion over time, or its orbital point-of-closest-approach to the Sun.

This time, the extra acceleration should work to slow Uranus, and so it ought to move with a velocity slightly less than Kepler’s 2nd law predicted (Fig. 2). Remember that Kepler’s laws are a special case of Newton’s, where only two masses — a very large, stationary mass and a much smaller, orbiting mass — are present. Once additional objects (such as planets in the Solar System) start showing up, Kepler’s laws are no longer exact, but are approximations to the actual motions of planets. Corrections were used previously by Halley to explain the orbits of long-period comets; perhaps an additional correction was necessary to explain the orbit of Uranus.

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Beyond the Galaxy: How Humanity Looked Beyond Our Milky Way and Discovered the Entire Universe by Ethan Siegel

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