By P. Hariharan

ISBN-10: 0521807417

ISBN-13: 9780521807418

Fundamentals of Holography is a common advent to the topic written by way of a number one employee within the box. It starts off with the idea of holographic imaging, the features of the reconstructed photo, and a number of the varieties of holograms. sensible facets of holography are then defined, together with mild resources, the features of recording media and recording fabrics, in addition to equipment for generating types of holograms and computer-generated holograms. ultimately, vital functions of holography are mentioned, reminiscent of high-resolution imaging, holographic optical parts, info processing, and holographic interferometry.

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4) where f is the focal length of the microscope objective. If the diameter of the pinhole is less than d, randomly diffracted light is blocked, and the transmitted beam has a smooth profile. An exceptional case, where it is possible to dispense with beam expansion, is with a diode laser. Because of the extremely small emitting area, a diode laser produces a clean, divergent beam similar to that obtained from a He–Ne laser after expansion and spatial filtration. 2) without any external optics. 4 Beam splitters If we define the beam ratio Rϭ(r΋ o)2 as the ratio of the irradiances of the reference and object beams, we would expect the visibility of the interference fringes forming the hologram to be a maximum when Rϭ1.

47 Typical phase shift vs. exposure curve for a recording material. Similarly, the response of a recording material used for phase holograms can be described by a curve of the effective phase shift as a function of the exposure (a ⌬␾ – E curve), as shown in fig. 2. 2 The modulation transfer function Curves such as those shown in figs. 2 may not describe the response of the recording medium on a microscopic scale because the actual intensity distribution to which the recording medium is exposed always differs from that incident on it, due to scattering and absorption in the medium.

Diode lasers can be made to operate in a single longitudinal mode by increasing the drive current to a figure just below their maximum rating [Henry, 1991]. Light sources 42 Fig. 4. Optical system used to expand and spatially filter a laser beam. 3 Laser beam expansion Since the beam from most lasers has a diameter of only 1–2 mm and a very low divergence, it is usually necessary to use low-power microscope objectives to expand the laser beam to illuminate the object as well as the hologram. A problem is that, due to the high coherence of laser light, the expanded beam exhibits random diffraction patterns (spatial noise) produced by defects and dust on the optical surfaces in the path of the beam.

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