By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Taxonomists tend to fall into two schools: Traditional systematics Phylogenetic or cladistic systematics Modern phylogenetic methods are making many changes in traditional views of the Tree of Life. Since the 1970s, "phylogenetic systematics" has been gradually replacing "traditional systematics“. The student must understand both systems. 61 Phylogenetic Identification Advantages     Simple PCR based system. Can use pre-existing database as a reference frame. Discrimination of species and sub-species lineages according to length/number of loci.

Like a copy from the library, RNA has a complementary code to DNA and goes out to do the dirty work. A few types of RNA have been known to have autocatalytic selfreplicating abilities. These molecules must be encapsulated within a "cell wall structure" or a small protective enclosure from the outside world. But, the protective cell requires replicating genetic machinery to be created. Thus, we now have a "chicken and egg scenario", which came first? The self-replicating machinery (which needs a cell to operate), or the cell itself, which protects (and is created by) the cellular machinery?

34 Possible ancestors of DNA: PNA, p-RNA, and TNA DNA RNA The repeating units of the backbones of RNA, TNA, and p-RNA. 35 RNA world Era of nucleic acid life The RNA world hypothesis proposes that RNA was the first life-form on earth, later developing a cell membrane around it and becoming the first prokaryotic cell. Thus:  All life on earth appears to share the same origins.  There is considerable evidence that there was a period of time on Earth called the RNA world.  In this world life existed as RNA as both phenotype and genotype.

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Bacteria phylogeny by Nader Hassanzadeh

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Bacteria phylogeny - download pdf or read online
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