By Stanisław Adam Ślipiński; Australia. Department of the Environment and Water Resources.; Australian Biological Resources Study
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Additional resources for Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) : their biology and classification
The larva liberates itself from the moulted cuticle and walks away after the new cuticle hardens. 45 The first instar larvae appear to be most restricted in their range of suitable host stages and suffer highest mortality rates (Hodek 1967, 1973; Ponsonby & Copland 1997). Once their cuticle has hardened the first instar larvae actively seek food. This consists mostly of the eggs of prey in the case of coccidophagous species or small aphid nymphs for aphidophagous species. The newly hatched larvae have about one to one and a half days in which to locate their first prey.
Kuznetsov (1997) cites fecundity of various species of Coccinellini from eastern Russia [as Soviet Far East] as between 150 and 920 eggs per female, depending on the aphid host and the ladybird species. 44 Larval stage Larvae emerge from eggs either via a rupture at one end of the egg or a longitudinal split. Shortly before eclosion the chorion becomes thin and semitransparent, the stemmata, mandibles and hatching spines (egg bursters) on the head of the embryo becoming clearly visible. A bulge gradually develops on one side of the chorion, caused by pressure of head and hatching spines, and eclosion is usually completed within 2–10 minutes.
Predators, parasites and pathogens Hodek (1973), Drea and Gordon (1990), Majerus (1994), Ceryngier and Hodek (1996) have shown that there are many predators and parasites that attack Coccinellidae. These authors believe that predators and parasites have very negative effects on ladybird populations. However, with but few exceptions for micro-Hymenoptera, there is very little empirical data demonstrating the real impact of these organisms on Coccinellidae. Almost no data exist about the Australian species.
Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) : their biology and classification by Stanisław Adam Ślipiński; Australia. Department of the Environment and Water Resources.; Australian Biological Resources Study
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