By Netter F. H., Hansen J. T., Koeppen B. M.

This feature of ihe paintings of Dr. Frank H. Netter on neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is drawn from the Alias of Human Anatomy and Nelter's Alias of Human body structure. Viewing those photos back activates mirrored image on Dr. Nelter's paintings and his roles as medical professional and artist.Frank H. Netter used to be born in 1906 in ny urban. He pursued his inventive muse on the Sorbonne, the paintings Student*s League, and the nationwide Academy of layout sooner than getting into clinical university at long island college, the place he bought his M.D. measure in 1931. in the course of his pupil years. Dr. Nelter's workstation sketches attracted the eye of the clinical college and different physicians, permitting him to reinforce his source of revenue by way of illustrating articles and textbooks. He endured illustrating as a sideline after constructing a surgical perform in 1933, yet finally opted to renounce his perform in want of a full-time dedication to artwork. After carrier within the usa military through the moment international conflict, Dr. Netter all started his lengthy collaboration with the CIBA Pharmaceutical corporation (now Novartis Pharmaceuticals). This 45-year partnership led to the creation of the intense number of scientific paintings so prevalent to physicians and different doctors around the world. whilst Dr. Nelter's paintings is mentioned, cognizance is concentrated totally on Netter the artist and basically secondarily on Netter the healthcare professional. As a scholar of Dr. Nelter's paintings for greater than 40 years, i will say thai the real power of a Netler representation used to be constantly verified good prior to brush used to be laid to paper. In thai appreciate each one plate is extra of an highbrow than a creative or aesthetic workout. you can appreciaie the cultured traits of Dr. Nelter's paintings, yet to miss its highbrow traits is to overlook the genuine power and purpose of the paintings. This highbrow approach calls for thorough realizing of the subject, as Dr. Netter wrote: ''''Strange because it could appear, the toughest a part of creating a clinical photograph isn't the drawing in any respect. it's the making plans, the notion, the decision of viewpoint and the procedure on the way to top make clear the topic which takes the main effort.''Years earlier than the inception of ''the built-in curriculum,'' Netter the doctor learned strong clinical representation can comprise medical info and physiologic features in addition to anatomy. In pursuit of this precept Dr. Netter frequently integrates pertinent easy and scientific technology components in his anatomic interpretations. even supposing he was once chided for this heresy by means of a popular eu anatomy professor, many generations of scholars education to be physicians instead of anatomists have liked Dr. Nelter's notion. the combination of body structure and medical drugs with anatomy has led Dr. Netter to a different, extra sophisticated, selection in his artwork. Many texts and atlases released in the course of the interval of Dr. Nelter's occupation depict anatomy sincerely in accordance with cadaver specimens with renderings of shrunken and contracted tissues and organs. Netter the doctor selected to render ''''live'' types of those structures—not contracted, colorless, formaldehyde-soaked tissues, yet plump, strong organs, sparkling with colour! the price of Dr. Nelter's procedure is obviously validated by way of the plates during this selection.John A. Craig, MDAustin, Texas

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The motor axon loses its myelin sheath and expands into a Schwann cell–invested synaptic terminal that resides within a trough in the muscle fiber. Acetylcholine-containing synaptic vesicles accumulate adjacent to the presynaptic membrane and, when appropri- 56 ately stimulated, release their neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. The transmitter then binds to receptors that mediate depolarization of the muscle sarcolemma and initiate a muscle action potential. A single muscle fiber has only one neuromuscular junction, but a motor axon can innervate multiple muscle fibers.

57 Cutaneous Sensory Receptors . . . . . . . 74 Cutaneous Receptors: Pacinian Corpuscle. . . . . . . . . . 75 Proprioception and Reflex Pathways: I . . . 76 Synaptic Transmission: Inhibitory Mechanisms . . . . . . . . 58 Proprioception and Reflex Pathways: II . . . 77 Synaptic Transmission: Chemical Synaptic Transmission . . . . . 59 Proprioception and Reflex Pathways: IV. . . 79 Synaptic Transmission: Temporal and Spatial Summation . . . . 60 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): Brain Ventricles and CSF Composition .

91 Limbic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Olfactory System: Pathway . . . . . . . . 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN: CEREBRUM• The cerebral cortex represents the highest center for sensory and motor processing. In general, the frontal lobe processes motor, visual, speech, and personality modalities. The parietal lobe processes sensory information; the temporal lobe, auditory and memory modalities; and the occipital lobe, vision. The cerebellum 52 coordinates smooth motor activities and processes muscle position.

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Atlas of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology by Netter F. H., Hansen J. T., Koeppen B. M.

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