By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

ISBN-10: 019915273X

ISBN-13: 9780199152735

Fresh, updated chemistry textual content for the hot AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complicated research.

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New PDF release: AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book

Fresh, up to date chemistry textual content for the hot AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complicated research.

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Epoxyethane is manufactured from ethene, C2H4, a compound obtained from crude oil. 4%. Overall, the mass of waste products was around three times the mass of the epoxyethane manufactured. This way of making epoxythane was abandoned by 1975. The modern process is a one-step process. It is an addition reaction using silver as a catalyst: C2H4 + ½O2 r C2H4O Some ethene is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water vapour, reducing the yield of epoxyethane to about 80%. But the atom economy is 100%. There is still some waste but very much less than the original process.

6 This is the same as the total relative masses of products. AM O U N t O F S U B S TAN CE Comparing reactions Atom economy is a useful way to compare different ways of making the same desired product. For example, hydrogen gas is used in the manufacture of margarine and as a fuel. 0 Both processes produce carbon monoxide as a waste product. But the second process has a higher atom economy. It produces a higher proportion of useful product and is more efficient. The atom economy of the first process can be improved by reacting the carbon monoxide waste product with steam: Hydrogen is used to ‘harden’ vegetable oils to make fats for margarine.

D Use your answer to part c) to suggest the identity of the acid. 17 Carrying out a titration AM O U N t O F S U B S TAN CE Dissolving precautions OBJECTIVES Weighing precautions Take care that you already from AS Level, you can • c alculate concentrations and volumes for reactions in solutions and after this spread you should be able to • make up a volumetric solution • record your two precise readings to the precision of the balance and include the unit. 6g Weighing accurately Weighing by difference gives you an accurate measure of the mass of solid used.

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AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book by Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole


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