By John O’Donel Alexander MB, ChB, FRCP (Glasgow) (auth.)
To the entomologist all bugs have six legs; the layman has a tendency to take advantage of the time period "insect" to incorporate the eight-legged spiders and mites. most of these creatures are accurately categorised as arthropods. Many hundreds of thousands of the loads of hundreds of thousands of known species of arthropods are present in the human environment-domestic, occupational and rec reational. these species that are obligate parasites of guy, the human scabies mite and the pinnacle and physique lice, produce generic scientific syndromes. they continue to be very important in scientific perform and feature been the topic of loads of fresh learn. this can be commencing to throw a lot gentle at the immunological mechanisms which principally confirm the reactions of the host. Dr. Alexander has supplied a close survey of this paintings. The wasps, bees, ants and different Hymenoptera that could sting guy in self-defence may cause painful, even deadly reactions. the new paintings in this very important topic has additionally been completely reviewed. each dermatologist of expertise will admit that he sees many sufferers in whom he makes a analysis of "insect bites", if he has the boldness to take action, or of "papular urticaria" or "prurigo" whilst he lacks such self belief, in general simply because he's at a loss to understand which arthropod is perhaps implicated. In his survey of the big literature within the entomological, public future health and dermatology journals Dr. Alexander has supplied a useful consultant within which the strategies to those scientific mysteries might be sought.
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They vomit and defaecate indiscriminately during feeding and are thus potential vectors of organisms from contaminated sources. Cockroaches also emit nauseating odours which arise from secretions by various defence glands and contaminate food and the environment. The secre- tions are of two types (Roth and Alsop 1978). One is a liquid secretion containing aldehydes, quinones and other chemicals discharged in response to predatory attack and acting as a contact irritant. This type is possibly irritant to man's skin.
15) and the latter can easily be overlooked by a busy, harrassed physician. Encrustation and purulent discharge together with cervical adenopathy are the salient features. In gross infestations which have been neglected the number of lice may be very great and secondary infection may involve the whole scalp. The result is a confluent, purulent mass of matted hair, lice, nits, crusts and purulent discharge. The whole has a most unpleasant odour and looks more like a decaying bird's nest than a head of hair (Fig.
This cibarial cavity can be dilated by means of a dilator muscle, which pulls the roof upwards and forwards thus exerting suction and drawing food into the cavity. When the muscle relaxes, the cavity contracts and propels the contents backwards into the mouth and pharynx (Chapman 1971; Fig. 3). In D E Fig. 3. Mouthparts of lice. A, cibarial dilator muscle; B, haustelJum; C, teeth on haustelJum (which fasten onto the skin of the host when the lips of the haustelJum are everted in the direction of the arrows); D, pharynx; E, cavity of cibarial pump; F, salivary ducts; G, stylet sac.
Arthropods and Human Skin by John O’Donel Alexander MB, ChB, FRCP (Glasgow) (auth.)
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