By Janet Moore
Moore's advent is short, yet informative. based within the regular layout for a zoology textbook, she covers the fundamentals fast and good, after which increases fascinating questions that pertain to no matter what phylum is in query. Having already performed coursework in invertebrates, i discovered this an excellent refresher and nonetheless choked with issues i didn't comprehend (or had thoroughly forgotten).
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Invertebrates
We must sympathise with his dilemma. The difficulty is that resemblance between animals is not an entirely reliable guide to their evolutionary history. What makes animals resemble each other? It may be due either to close common ancestry or to convergence, occurring when animals of different ancestry acquire very similar adaptations because they face the same problems or live in the same environment. For example, any land-living invertebrate will have a skin relatively impermeable to water; this character is no guide to closeness of ancestry, it is due to the general need to avoid desiccation.
Deeper in the sea there is more variety, including metre-thick spheres and the reef builders already mentioned. In turbulent water continual disturbance brings in WHAT CHANGES HAVE EVOLVED DURING SPONGE HISTORY? plenty of food, but in still water a sponge is in danger of recycling the water and gaining no more food. Increased body size is then an advantage, and a raised osculum will achieve a more powerful exhalant jet. 2 shows the upright tubes of Leucosolenia and the flat ‘purses’ of Grantia, but usually the general appearance of a sponge is no certain guide to its identity.
2). As the sequence in which the main groups of animals occurred is determined, new finds continually push the earliest appearance of each group back in time. Direct ancestry, however, is not revealed. While every fossil must have a nearest living relative, we can only very rarely identify it, and in any case the chance of finding a direct ancestor is vanishingly small. Among fossils as among living animals, a supposed ‘missing link’ between phyla can seldom be authenticated, although it may be disproved.
An Introduction to the Invertebrates by Janet Moore
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