By J. N. Islam

ISBN-10: 0521496500

ISBN-13: 9780521496506

This e-book offers a concise creation to the mathematical facets of the beginning, constitution and evolution of the universe. The e-book starts with a quick evaluation of observational and theoretical cosmology, besides a quick advent of common relativity. It then is going directly to speak about Friedmann types, the Hubble consistent and deceleration parameter, singularities, the early universe, inflation, quantum cosmology and the far-off way forward for the universe. This re-creation features a rigorous derivation of the Robertson-Walker metric. It additionally discusses the boundaries to the parameter area via a variety of theoretical and observational constraints, and offers a brand new inflationary answer for a 6th measure strength. This e-book is acceptable as a textbook for complex undergraduates and starting graduate scholars. it's going to even be of curiosity to cosmologists, astrophysicists, utilized mathematicians and mathematical physicists.

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32), the ‘radius’ of this sphere, that is, the distance from the ‘centre’ given by ␺ ϭ0 to the surface given by ␺ ϭ ␺0 along ␪ ϭ constant and ␾ ϭconstant, is R␺0. Thus the surface area is larger than that of a sphere of radius R␺0 in Euclidean space. In this case the range of the coordinates (␺, ␪, ␾) is: 0ഛ ␺ ഛϱ,0ഛ ␪ ഛ ␲, 0ഛ ␾ Ͻ 2␲. The spatial volume is infinite. 3 Some kinematic properties of the Robertson–Walker metric We have seen that galaxies have fixed spatial coordinates, that is, they are at rest in the coordinate system defined above.

66) Again making use of expansion of determinants one can show that ␧␣␤␥␦ ϭ(Ϫ )␧␣␤␥␦. 67) It can be verified that ␧␣␤␥␦ is a covariant tensor density of weight Ϫ1. The Levi–Civita tensor density is used for defining the ‘dual’ of antisymmetric tensors, such as that of the electromagnetic field tensor F␮␯, the Yang–Mills field tensor, or, with respect to suitable indices, of the Riemann tensor (the latter are needed for some of the so-called ‘curvature invariants’, which will be mentioned later in connection with singularities).

1) does not incorporate the property that space is homogeneous and isotropic. This form of the metric can be used, with the help of a special coordinate system obtained by singling out a particular typical galaxy, to derive some general properties of the universe without the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy (see, for example, Raychaudhuri (1955)). 1) when space is homogeneous and isotropic. The spatial separation on the same hypersurface t ϭconstant of two nearby galaxies at coordinates (x1, x2, x3) and (x1 ϩ⌬x1, x2 ϩ⌬x2, x3 ϩ⌬x3) is d␴2 ϭhij ⌬xi⌬xj.

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