By J.D. Holloway
I spent 4 months in New Caledonia in 1971 with the item of creating a quantitative survey of the night-flying macrolepidoptera with light-traps and an evaluate of the Rhopalocera and microlepidoptera. This fieldwork was once financed by way of a central authority Grant-in-Aid for clinical Investigations adminis tered by way of the Royal Society, and by way of a supply from the Godman Fund. I committed one more 3 weeks to sampling on Norfolk I. , and, with assistance from neighborhood naturalists, Mr. and Mrs. F. JOWETT, was once in a position to produce a close account of the biogeography and ecology of the moth fauna (HOLLOWAY, 1977). This booklet is an account of the result of the hot Caledonian paintings, including stories of the geology, phytogeography and basic zoogeography pre sented as heritage for the Lepidoptera fauna and its geography. earlier paintings at the macroheterocera, essentially papers through VIETTE (1948- 1971), had recorded now not many greater than 100 species, a really low overall contemplating the realm of the island relative to that of the Fiji workforce the place the moths have been being studied by way of Dr. G. S. ROBINSON whilst the recent Caledonian excursion was once on the drawing board. The Fijian fauna then promised think of ably to exceed 300 species. obviously many extra species awaited discovery in New Caledonia.
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E. Asia are relict rather than redistributive. E. Asia and northern Australia in proximity, almost enclosing the Tethys Ocean. Archipelagic exchange between the two areas may well have been feasible if the reconstruction is correct, but the dating of events by JOHNSON, POWELL & VEEVERS suggests that at least some adjustments may be necessary. There are indications from Borneo (the palynological work of MULLER, reviewed briefly by HOLLOWAY, 1970) that northern conifers predominated before the Pliocene and only then do southern elements appear in the fossil record.
The beginning of the Middle Miocene was very warm and thence there was an overall decline in temperature culminating in the Pleistocene glaciations. Palaeontological evidence has indicated a period of low temperature in New Zealand in the middle of the Pliocene. The Eocene rise in temperature may reflect the separation of New Zealand from Antarctica, moving from a warm temperate regime into a subtropical one. The general Middle Oligocene to Miocene rise may reflect the more recent northward motion of Australasia as a whole, though this effect has been dominated since the Middle Miocene by an overall global cooling.
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A Survey of the Lepidoptera, Biogeograhy and Ecology of New Caledonia by J.D. Holloway
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