By Ray Abrahams
In response to box study in jap Finland now not faraway from the Russian border, this booklet is an account of the most gains of rural society within the quarter. It will pay particular consciousness to the adaptability of farming households in a quickly altering international. topics taken care of contain marriage and the family members, paintings and mechanization, succession to farms, and the paradoxical mix of fierce individualism and cooperation. significant issues of the booklet are the relation among legislations and customized, which isn't consistently what it kind of feels at the floor, and the complicated interlocking of farm, family members, and the broader society.
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Extra resources for A Place of their Own: Family Farming in Eastern Finland
By 1884 the situation had deteriorated further. The village list gives a total of 1,131 people, but there were still only seventy-one land-holding households, and there were now eighteen crofting families. The number of domestic and farm workers was much the same as before, but the number of dependent lodgers (loiset) had increased to 142 men, women and children. There was a long list of 196 unattached people (irtolaiset) and forty-four poor and incapable of work. A comparable pattern was maintained during the following decades.
Finland was a part of Sweden until 1809, when it was formally ceded to Russia, and Swedish culture, in a broad sense of the term, continued to exert substantial influence long after that. Swedish remained the only official administrative language until the 1860s, when Finnish gradually began to be used as well. 1 2 See Jutikkala (1960a and 1960b), Kirby (1979) and Singleton (1989). There is a useful further bibliography in Kirby (1979). My own main sources for this chapter have been Jutikkala (1960a and 1960b), Kirby (1979) and Saloheimo (1954).
Building materials were also given by the state. Most of the land had belonged to the Enso Gutzeit company, but other land came Independent farmers in an independent state 39 from the state, the Commune, the Kaukas timber company and individual land-owners. 21 The process of resettlement was extremely difficult both physically and psychologically for the newcomers, and their arrival was tolerated rather than wholeheartedly welcomed by some local residents. There is still occasional slight evidence of resentment among some of the latter, and as far as I can tell this stems originally from the large quantities of aid, with an ultimate cancellation of debts, which the displaced families received from the state at a time when many local farmers were struggling to make a go of things.
A Place of their Own: Family Farming in Eastern Finland by Ray Abrahams
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